Kamis, 29 Maret 2012

Tugas Analisis Jurnal Psikologi Agama


“Paradigm of Humanistic, Behavior, and Transpersonal Psychotherapy”

Abstract
The paradigm shift in psychological studies from the Humanistic, Freudain and Behaviouristic psychotherapies has brought us to yet another psychological paradigm (transpersonal) that is based on spirituality as a process of human guidance and counselling. This paradigm is aimed at handling the psychological problems beyond the physical entities, but going down to the spiritual nature of man. The spiritual nature of man from the Islamic perspective is the consciousness of Allah's will and power in therapy which is lacking in the contemporary transpersonal approach. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss the denotational implications, the scope and the shortfalls of the contemporary transpersonal psychotherapy. This is with the view to offering the Islamic process of psychotherapy based on the concept of Tauheed. By way of development, the relic of historical facts would be used to show the effectiveness of Islamic paradigm of psychotherapy so as to guide the Muslims from the aqidah contamination entails by the transpersonal approach. In summation, the paper would provide an Islamic model of transpersonal psychotherapy for the use of Muslims in their psychological practices.
Introduction
The concern of psychology is the manipulation of the variables and processes involved in motivation, development and modification of human behaviour. In pursuance of this need modern psychological theories are founded to serve as guide for human psychoses. The formulations of these theories according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) are based on cultural and geographical limitations as they emerged over time to address the needs of the people of different social contexts1. With the variations in perception, environment, and the passage of time the discipline of psychology undergoes different transformations based on three well-known paradigmatic forces of Behaviouristic, Freudian and Humanistic psychology. These transformations reveal the psychological concern for soul, psyche (conscious and unconscious state of man), mental processes, feelings and sensations underlying human behaviour2. Maslow (1968) considered the humanistic third force psychology to be a transitional preparation for a still 'higher' fourth paradigmatic force of psychology, ie. transpersonal psychology. This is based on the observation of Maslow (1970) that human beings who are wonderful out of their own human and biological nature necessitate the need for another paradigm for a more complete understanding of psychoses and the effective treatment.
As a result of the variation in human social groups, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) emphasize the need for a psychological approach that will serve the spiritual needs of man (spiritual). Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) see the proposed spiritual dimension as a universal aspect of human nature. As such, its need cannot be under-emphasized. According to them, to remain relevant in a postmodern world, psychologists must incorporate the comprehensive perspective of transpersonal theory into education and practice.
From the views of Cowley and Derezotes (1994), Maslow (1968) and (1970) and Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) the development of the contemporary psychological theories until the introduction of transpersonal psychology has been centred on either the overt, external and material variables or the internal, covert and hidden variables in man. Although the present efforts being made by transpersonal psychologists have made a small shift, but the shift is only geared towards spirituality that is devoid of religion (Islam) which is unsatisfactory from the Islamic point of view. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss and introduce the Islamic framework of psychotherapy which satisfies the Islamic expectations that is based on aqidah.
Transpersonal Psychotherapy
Literally the word transpersonal according to Wittine (1987) denotes beyond or through the "mask". While technically Cowley and Derezotes (1994) defined the term as going beyond the personal level. The implication of the their definitions entails the application of the concept as a process of treating human behaviour outside the context of physical entities. To them psychotherapy should be based on the natural energy3 that drives the entire human endeavours (spiritual). This is a psychological treatment that addresses the spiritual dimension of human existence to the psychological process. The paradigm which according to Valle (1989) calls us through and beyond our more familiar level of ego awareness to a critical examination of the very ground from which our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions emerge as forms or manifestations. Cowley and Derezotes (1994) perceive it as an essential aspect of being that is existentially subjective, transrational, non-local and non- temporal. Transpersonal psychotherapy according to Maslow (1971) evolves in response to the need of broader context for understanding what it means to be fully human and to assess the farther reaches of human nature. This is a spiritual therapy that is an integral part or an essential universal need of human nature (Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990). Transpersonal psychotherapeutic tradition is perceived by Nasr (1975) as a tradition of treatment which comes from the spirit (confidence in Allah) and not the psyche that can be the source of ethics of aesthetics.
It is an approach that believes in the need for meaning for higher values and for spiritual life which are as real as biological or social needs (Keen, 1974). This task according to Huxley (1968) involved a start from new premises, such as the premise that the most ultimate satisfaction comes from a depth and wholeness of the inner life, and therefore that we must explore and make fully available the techniques of spiritual development. Furthermore, the need for the fourth force according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) is the desire to remain relevant in the highly sophisticated postmodern world to cater for educational and psychotherapeutic practices. The realization of the need for more comprehensive system that could cover the general need of man in the greatest depth of awareness has led to the development of transpersonal psychology as the fourth force of the psychological paradigm.
Based on the above needs, the transpersonal psychologists have tried to evolve techniques that are quite relevant to the present "illness" in man. This "illness" in man of our time is linked to a deficit of values and these values are spiritual in nature (concern for Allah as the source of cure). Although, Toynbee (1995) sees this approach as human degradation and the sickness of modern society who sought solutions through programmes based on religious practices (faith in Allah). But the essence of spirituality is to guide and influence the behaviour of man so as to establish a spiritually guided community which believes in Allah for cure. Grof (1988) and Hartman (1990) believe that much of the transpersonal ideas focus on the need for a reconnection of the human families to establish a global community or communion. Concurrently, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) observe that, the overall goal for transpersonal ideas is to facilitate the development of the spiritual dimension of higher states of "consciousness" within individuals, organizations, communities and cultures. As such the aim of transpersonal psychology is to shift from the traditional secular western position of self-actualization to the spiritually-based process.
Spiritual Limitation of the Transpersonal Psychotherapy
Although transpersonal approach has been able to create a space for spirituality in psychology, it is still questionable on how relevant and how applicable is it to human societies? Have the propounded ideas within the transpersonal approach covers all aspects of spirituality? To answer these questions, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) note that in aspiring to work with the transpersonal or spiritual dimension, it is crucial that the client system and social worker come to a common understanding or shared meaning about the term spiritual as used in transpersonal theory. Not as contained by the theological walls of any specific ideology system, spirituality in transpersonal theory is not considered as equivalent to religion. In support of this Bloomfield (1980) states that the use of the word "spiritual" is neither a statement nor a belief per se. It is therefore an energy and life force that is innate in all living matter driving to perfect itself. Houston (1988) uses the term entelechy to describe this essential urge of human nature to realize its inner potential. Thus, according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) the development of the spiritual and morapol;l dimensions forms the basis for spiritual maturity or higher states of consciousness. The individual manifests this maturity through increased social and self-responsibilities, which will benefit all in a given psychosocial environment. The scope emphasizes by transpersonal psychology has put the Muslims out of the maximum utilization of transpersonal paradigm because to the Muslims human existence must revolve around religion which is divine by origin. The divine nature entails the faith (Iman) as the epitome of psychotherapeutic treatment as implicated by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun (sickness of the mind). In this sense transpersonal psychotherapy from the Muslims, point of view could hardly be separated from religion. This is in line with the assertion of Nasr (1975) that God has placed religion in the world to enable man to overcome his complexes. The human therapeutic complexes could be of any kind ranging from psychological, social and biological to spiritual. For a successful therapy, divine spirituality that is based on the revealed guidance is the answer. Thus, the absence of religion in transpersonal approach seems to only summarize the ideas and practices entail by the earlier paradigms or they are going toward witch-crafting which is totally at variance with aqidah. In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively could only be realized by resorting to divine knowledge and ethical values.
The Expected Spiritual Scope of Transpersonal Psychotherapy
There is no doubt that transpersonal approach has created a space for spirituality in the formal conventional psychological theories. Yet the inclusion of the spiritual aspect to the psychological theories as contained in the transpersonal psychology is not enough for the general reference to the Muslims. This is because to them (Muslims) spirituality is an element of religion (Islam) that is directed by the knowledge contained in the Quran which are general guide for human existence. As such it is only the spiritual that is based on divine guidance that is paramount and total, and which precisely because of its totality embraces the psychic and even the corporeal aspects of man. (Nasr, 1975). In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively are realized by means of divine knowledge and ethical values. Hence, knowledge and ethics are linked (Hanafi, 1996). On the contrary the transpersonal psychologists see spirituality as an entity devoid of religion (divine guidance). Even to some non-Muslim psychologists this position is baseless as Koltko and Mark (1998) observe that it is a contradiction to think one can develop a psychology by leaping across the person from a point of view which goes beyond religion. In his quest for religious consideration in the transpersonal paradigm, Denton (1990) asserts that, to make it (transpersonal psychology) a complete spiritual approach, religious approach is inevitable because the religious and spiritual concerns provide the prime motive for all social works4. Based on this the development of religious spirituality should be an extension of the present form of transpersonal process of psychotherapy.
Koltko and Mark (1998) note that transpersonal psychology represents an extension of psychology (spiritual) that leads to what it really means to be a human being and marks the beginning of a psychological analysis that recognizes the natural status of man. As such some transpersonal psychologists have surfaced in the direction different from the earlier transpersonal paradigm as observed by Sollod (1992) that, a social work curriculum that deletes or omits the content related to the spiritual dimension may be called "Hollow". For the success of psychotherapeutic practices Weick (1992) so aptly observed that, when artistic practice joins with value commitment (religion), social work can indeed be a force in the society. The idea here is the connection between the psychotherapeutic process and the religiously inclined spiritual value of human nature that makes the therapeutic endeavours more effective. The confirmation of this could be perceived from the work of Anthony et. al, (1987) that, for the individual with a genuine hunger for truth, reality, spirit, soul, self, God Oneness, freedom, being and meaning, the task of choosing among these offerings is intricate and subtle and not without the element of peril discriminations. Contrary to the concept of "neutral spirituality" maintained by transpersonal perspective, religious spirituality is therefore of paramount importance. Although, it is inevitable to acknowledge the efforts of transpersonal psychologists in evolving theories based on spiritual values, yet these efforts are unsatisfactory to the Muslims because they do not include divine faith in their theories. As such an attempt is made in this paper to provide another transpersonal framework that would be useful to the Muslims.
Islamic Approach to Transpersonal Psychotherapy
From the Islamic point of view spiritual approach to psychotherapy is an aspect of behaviour modification that is based on the relationship between man and his Creator (Allah) which entails an operational paradigm in which faith (Iman) in Allah is the focal point. Iman is both a cognitive and ethical constructs that gather all data and facts in the perspective which is proper to and requisite for a true understanding of the therapeutic processes. It is the consciousness of Allah's existence and the conviction in service (Iman) that serve as the beginning of therapy to remove mental sickness (maradhun) in man. This is rightly pointed out by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun as implicated by the verse below.
"Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek"
(Quran, 1:5)
The implication of the above verse is the recognition of Allah as the Creator. Having faith in Him is a matter of conviction which by extension leads a man to realistic services as a created organism in need of His help and bounties. In support of this point, a Professor of Botany5 in his alternative cure for cancer emphasizes ones commitments to his religion and faith in his God as the foundation of treatment. The divine knowledge in man leads him to realization which is faith. From this conviction then comes the consciousness leading to purification of the body and soul. This is channelled through devotion. The attainment of this level is the therapy in man.
For the success of Islamic psychotherapy, the internal and external components of man must be purified. When this is accomplished the Ruh, the Qalb and Nafs as the fountainhead of vitality could be transformed into sources of psychodynamics explaining the human behaviour (Daud, 1996). The internal purification referred to above entails one's realization of the power of Allah and confidence in Him, while the external purification on the other hand is the appreciation of Allah's Law of observing the Halal (lawful) and Haram (unlawful) conducts. The essence of purification of the Ruh, the Qalb and the Nafs according to Sabeena (1996) is to bring one's Nafs under control and channelling it to the right direction because;
"Successful is the one who keeps it pure, and ruined is the one who corrupts it"
(Quran, 91:9-10)
When the Nafs is purified one would be in observance of the recommended (halal) acts which is the foundation of spiritual therapy and morality in Islam. The premise of faith is that servanthood and the fulfilment of its obligation is a prerequisite for the well-being of man in his individual and societal lives. One's successful engagement in the worship of Allah paves the way for His assistance (therapy) as contained in the verse quoted earlier from Suratul Fatiha. For the treatment of psychoses the spiritual issues of Allah's power, will and ability, the consequences of the day of judgement, the agony of the hellfire and the joys of paradise are some of the Islamic variables of transpersonal psychotherapy.
The Effectiveness of Islamic Psychotherapy
As earlier on discussed, psychotherapy in Islam is the conviction and servitude to Allah the creator that paves the way for His assistance (therapy). Good mental and spiritual health of the individual is a by product of a natural balance within the individual and the practice of social and religious obligations that are based on the three aspects of psychotherapy as noted by Shah (1996) that,
(a) Analysis of the Nafs
(b) Reformative process, and
(c) Socio-religious reintegration of the individual.
According to him psychotherapy from the Islamic point of view revolves around these three aspects.
The revelation, application and implication of the chapters of An-Nas (Mankind) and Al-Falaq (Daybreak) in the Quran are some of the clear examples of psychotherapy in Islam that is purely a psycho-spiritual treatment for human psychoses. For the purpose of spiritual guidance and solution to therapeutic problems, Islam prescribes some transpersonal modalities in the conduct of all affairs. For example to prevent the problems arising from the Jinns Muslims are required to recite psychotic antidotes before going into the toilet. Apart from the anti psychotic prescriptions there are many historical episodes in which the Islamic modes of conduct serve to be psychotherapeutic. A clear example could be seen from the following narration found in the address delivered to the King of Abyssinia by Jafar, as narrated by Sheikhulhadith (1978), p.19, that:
"O King! We were ignorant people. We worshipped stones. We used to eat carrion and commit all sort of undesirable and disgraceful acts. We did not make good our obligations to our relatives. The strong among us thrived at the expense of the weak....... (But when faith that is Allah's consciousness was inserted into their hearts) . . . . . We, were exhorted to give up idolatry and stone worship. We were enjoined right conduct and forbidden any act of indecency. We were taught to tell the truth, to make good our trust, to have regard for our Kith and Kin, and to be good to our neighbours.... and to shun everything foul and to avoid bloodshed, adultery, lewdness, telling of lies, misappropriating the orphan's heritage, bringing false accusations against others and all other indecent things of that sort....".
The above statements made by Jafar revealed the psychotic mind and behaviours of the 'Jahiliyyah' period which was the era of the 3W (Wine, Women and War). The time when the consumption of wine was part of the human survival. The era when a woman can have as many husbands as she desires. Likewise a man can have as many wives as he desires. It was also the attitude of the Jahiliyya people that war between tribes and towns was a matter of pride. These undesired behaviours have been changed to noble behaviours through faith which shows that fear of Allah is the foundation of good human behaviour and the most effective therapy. The historical narration below is another evidence of psychotherapeutic process as a result of the fear of Allah as recorded by An-Nawawi (1981), p.123, that:
"This was a man who had a cousin whom he loved more passionately than any man loves a woman. He tried to seduce her but she would have none of him, until a time of great hardship from famine. She approached him and he gave her one hundred and twenty dinars (USD 768.00) on condition that she would yield herself to him. She agreed and when they got together she pleaded. Fear Allah, and do not break the seal unlawfully; where upon he moved away from her despite the fact that he desired her most passionately; and he allowed her to keep the money he had given her."
From the above stated episode one could understand that, fear of Allah is the most important determinant of the Islamic framework for behaviour therapy. Fear of Allah, being the beginning of wisdom and a kin to the love for purification of our Nafs, it is an active assertion of our own will not to offend our Lord and Cherisher (Allah). With the fear of Allah good conducts are bound to flourish. The two episodes stated above indicate that psychoses are easily modified by directly or indirectly referring it to the Creator of man (Allah) because the Creator knows better what is good for man.
Conclusion
In this paper, an attempt was made to discuss the transpersonal paradigm of psychotherapy as prescribed by different transpersonal psychologists. In the process of analysis, it was found that the scope is limited to other ideas that are deficit of religious concern for human survival. As such a good Islamic framework is very necessary for which this paper has attempted to present. This paper shows that Islamic perspective is more comprehensive at best to the Muslims in guiding their aqidah. This is in comparison with the transpersonal psychotherapy that is based on witch doctoring as could be seen in Cowley and Derezotes (1994) who may be able to come up with a systematic spiritual journey to good mental health, but the aqidah may be contaminated.
In summation, even if this paper could not provide a well-accomplished conceptualization, it is hoped that it serves as the foundation for further development because of the need to guide the Muslims, aqidah against unconscious corruption that may be affected by the transpersonal approach.

References
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Resume Jurnal
“Paradigma Psikoterapi Humanistik, Behavior, dan Transpersonal”

Abstrak
Pergeseran paradigm dalam studi psikologis dan psikoterapi Humanistik, Freudian dan Behavioristik telah membawa kita ke paradigm lain psikologi (transpersonal) yang didasarkan pada spiritualitas sebagai proses bimbingan dan konseling manusia. Paradigm ini ditujukan untuk menangani masalah psikologis di luar entitas fisik. Sifat spiritual manusia dari perspektif islam adalah kesadaran akan adanya Allah serta kekuasaan-Nya.
Tujuan jurnal ini adalah untuk membahas implikasi, ruang lingkup, serta kekurangan psikoterapi transpersonal kontemporer dengan tujuan untuk menawarkan proses psikoterapi Islam berdasarkan konsep Tauhid.
Psikologi modern didirikan untuk melayani dan sebagai panduan untuk psikosis manusia. Menurut Cowley dan Derezotes (1994), karena adanya variasi dalam persepsi, lingkungan, dan berlalunya waktu, disiplin psikologi mengalami transformasi dari paradigm Freudian, Behavioristik, dan Humanistik. Maslow (1968) berpendapat bahwa paradigm ke-tiga ini (humanistic) mempersiapkan adanya paradigm ke-empat, paradigma yang lebih tinggi, yaitu psikologi transpersonal. Cowley dan Derezotes (1994) menekankan perlunya pendekatan psikologis yang melayani kebutuhan spiritual manusia. Thibault dan Elliot (1990) berpendapat bahwa dimensi spiritual merupakan aspek universal dari manusia. Dari pandangan Cowley dan Derezotes, Maslow, dan Thibault dkk, perkembangan teori psikologi kontemporer sampai pada psikologi transpersonal yang menyentuh aspek eksternal dan internal manusia, serta hal- hal yang tersembunyi dari manusia. Psikolog transpersonal telah melakukan pergeseran kecil, tapi pergesaran hanya diarahkan pada sisi spiritualitas yang tanpa agama (Islam), yang tentu tidak memuaskan dari sudut pandang Islam. Oleh karena itu tujuan dari jurnal ini adalah untuk mendiskusikan dan memperkenalkan kerangka psikoterapi Islam yang didasarkan pada akidah.
Psikoterapi Transpersonal
Implikasi dari psikoterapi transpersonal diterapkan sebagai suatu proses mengobati prilaku manusia di luar rntitas fisik. Psikoterapi harus didasarkan pada energy alami yang mendorong seluruh usaha manusia (spiritual). Psikoterapi transpersonal adalah pengobatan psikologis yang membahas dimensi spiritual dari eksistensi manusia.
Psikoterapi transpersonal menurut Maslow (1971) berkembang sebagai tanggapan terhadap kebutuhan manusia dalam konteks yang lebih luas untuk memahami apa artinya menjadi manusia sepenuhnya. Psikoterapi transpersonal adalah terapi rohani yang merupakan bagian integral dan kebtuhan universal yang penting pada manusia (Notting, Thibault dan Elliot(1990)). Nasr (1975) berpendapat, psikologi transpersonal adalah sebuah tradisi pengobatan yang berasala dari keyakinan terhadap Allah SWT. Menurut Huxley(1968), kepuasan yang paling utama beraasal dari kedalaman dan keutuhan kehidupan batin, karena itu kita harus mencari dan menyediakan teknik pengembangan rohani. Para psikolog menghubungkan penyakit yang ada dalam diri manusia dengan terjadinya deficit nilai- nilai spiritual pada manusia itu sendiri (keyakinan terhadap Allah SWT sebagai sumber kesembuhan). Inti dari spiritualitas adalah untuk membimbing dan mempengaruhi prilaku manusian sehingga terbentuk sebuah komunitas spiritual yang yakin bahwa Allah SWT-lah yang dapat menyembuhkan. Cowley dan Derezotes (1994) mengamati bahwa tujuan psikologi transpersonal adalah untuk memfasilitasi perkembangan dimensi spiritual yang lebih tinggi yang melibati “kesadaran” dalam diri individu. Dengan demikian, tujuan psikologi transpersonal telah bergeser dari budaya barat yang sekuler ke aktualisasi diri yang berbasis spiritualitas.
Batasan Spiritual dari Psikoterapi Transpersonal
Psikologi transpersonal telah mampu menciptakan ruang bagi spiritualitas dalam psikologi. menurut Cowley dan Derezotes, perkembangan spiritual membentuk dasar bagi kedewasaan rohani dan kesadaran yang lebih tinggi. Individu memanifestasikan kedewasaan ini melalui peningkatan sosial dan tanggung jawab diri.
Sifat Ilahi memerlukan iman sebagai lambing pengobatan. Hanafi (1996) berpendapat, mereka yang hidup dalam kesadaran akan kebesaran Allah SWT merasa aman dan dilindungi terhadap maradhun (penyakit pikiran). Dalam psikoterapi transpersonal, sudut pandang hampir tidak bisa dipisahkan dari agama. Hal ini sejalan dengan penegasan Nasr (1975) bahwa Allah SWT telah menempatkan agama di dunia sebagai jalan keluar bagi masalah manusia. Agama dapat menjadi psikoterapi yang kompleks yang dapat mengatasi mulai dari masalah psikologis, sosial, dan rohani. Agar terapi dapat berjalan dengan sukses, spiritualitas atau keyakinan terhadap Allah SWT adalah jawabannya. Dengan demikian ketiadaan agama hanya akan merangkum ide- ide dan praktek paradigm sebelumnya atau mereka (individu) akan terjerumus pada praktek sihir yang sangat bertentangan dengan akidah.

Ruang Lingkup Rohani pada Psikoterapi Transpersonal

Pendekatan transpersonal telah menciptakan ruang bagi spiritualitas dalam teori psikologi konvensional yang formal. Namun masuknya aspek spiritual untuk teori-teori psikologi sebagaimana tercantum dalam psikologi transpersonal tidak cukup untuk dijadikan referensi bagi kaum Muslim. Hal ini karena bagi kaum muslim, spiritualitas adalah elemen dari agama (Islam) yang diarahkan oleh pengetahuan yang terkandung dalam Quran sebagai panduan dalam kehidupannya. Karena itu hanya spiritual yang didasarkan pada bimbingan ilahi yang mencakup psikis dan bahkan aspek-aspek jasmani manusia. (Nasr, 1975). Dengan kata lain, keunggulan manusia dan kesejahteraannya secara individual dan kolektif yang diwujudkan dengan cara pengetahuan ilahi dan nilai-nilai etis. Oleh karena itu, pengetahuan dan etika/ agama saling terkait satu sama lain (Hanafi, 1996). Sebaliknya para psikolog transpersonal melihat spiritualitas sebagai suatu entitas tanpa agama. Bahkan bagi beberapa psikolog non-Muslim, pengetahuan dan agama adalah dua hal yang kontardiksi. Dalam usahanya untuk mempertimbangkan agama dalam paradigma transpersonal, Denton (1990) menegaskan bahwa, untuk psikologi transpersonal sebagai pendekatan spiritual yang lengkap, pendekatan agama tidak bisa dihindari karena masalah agama dan spiritual merupakan motif utama.
Koltko dan Mark (1998) mencatat bahwa psikologi transpersonal merupakan perpanjangan psikologi rohani yang mengarah pada apa arti sesungguhnya menjadi seorang manusia? Menurut Weick (1992), ketika praktek psikologi bergabung dengan nilai agama, kerja sosial memang dapat menjadi kekuatan dalam masyarakat. Hal ini karena hubungan antara proses psikoterapi dan nilai spiritual agama cendrung membuat terapi lebih efektif. Konfirmasi ini dapat dilihat dari studi yang dilakukan oleh Anthony dkk (1987), bahwa individu dengan rasa lapar, tulus terhadap kebenaran, yakin terhadap Tuhan yang Maha Esa, memilih antara penawaran yang rumit dan halus dan tanpa elemen diskiriminasi bahaya. Berlawanan dengan konsep “spiritualitas netral” dari perspektif transpersonal. Meskipun tidak bisa dihindari untuk mengakui upaya psikolog transpersonal dalam mengembangkan teori yang didasarkan pada nilai spiritual, namun usaha ini tidak memuaskan bagi kaum Muslim karena para psikolog transpersonal tidak memasukkan “iman kepada Allah SWT” dalam teori mereka. Dengan demikian upaya dilakukan dalam jurnal ini untuk memberikan kerangka transpersonal lain yang akan berguna bagi kaum Muslim.

Pendekatan Islami terhadap Psikoterapi Transpersonal

Dari sudut pandang Islam, pendekatan spiritual untuk psikoterapi merupakan aspek modifikasi prilaku yang didasarkan pada hubungan antara manusia dan penciptanya (Allah SWT) yang memerlukan suatu paradigm operasional dimana iman kepada Allah SWT sebagai titik focus. Iman merupakan sebuah kontruksi kognitif dan etika yang mengumpulkan semua data dan fakta dalam perspektif yang tepat dan diperlukan untuk pemahaman yang benar dari proses terapeutik. Hal ini merupakan kesadaran akan keberadaan Allah dan keyakinan iman yang berfungsi sebagai awal terapi untuk menghilangkan sakit mental (maradhun) dalam diri manusia.

implikasi dari ayat di atas adalah pengakuan terhadap Allah SWT sebagai pencipta.
Untuk mendukung hal ini, seorang professor dalam mengobati penyakit kanker menekankan pada komitmen agama dan iman kepada Allah SWT sebagai dasar pengobatan. Pengetahuan tentng Tuhan dalam diri manusia mendorong manusia tersebut untuk yakin (timbul keyakinan). Dari keyakinan ini kemudian muncul kesadaran yang mengarah pada kemurnian tubuh dan jiwa. Hal ini didapatkan melalui pengabdian. Pencapaian tingkat ini adalah terapi dalam manusia.

Psikoterapi Islam berisi berbagai proses psiko-spiritual dengan iman sebagai pusat awal memulai proses terapi pada manusia. Dalam studi pendekatan Islam untk rehabilitasi narkoba yang dilakukan oleh Muhammad dkk (1996) menemukan bahwa penyerahan total seseorang kepada Allah SWT membantu menjelaskan ketergantungan pada zat dan menggantinya dengan ketergantungan pada Allah SWT.
Untuk keberhasilan psikoterapi Islam, komponen internal dan eksternal manusia harus disucikan. Bila hal ini sudah dicapai, maka Ruh, Qalb, Nafs sebagai sumber vitalitas dapat ditransformasikan menjadi sumber psikodinamika yang menjelaskan prilaku manusia (Daud, 1996). Penyucian internal memerlukan realisasi seseorang tentang kekuasaan Allah dan keyakinan terhadap-Nya, sedangkan pennyucian eksternal dilakukan dengan mentaati hukum Allah tentang apa- apa yang Halal dan yang Haram yang dilarang oleh Allah SWT. Ketika Nafs telah disucikan dengan hanya memakan makanan yang halal, hal ini telah merupakan dasar dari terapi spiritual dan moralitas. Premis dari iman adalah kehambaan dan pemenuhan kewajiban yang merupakan prasyarat bagi kesejahteraan manusia dalam kehidupan pribadi dan sosial.

Efektifitas Psikoterapi Islam

Keyakinan dan penghambaan kepada Allah SWT sebagai Pencipta yang akan membantu proses terapi. Kesehatan mental dan spiritual yang baik dari individu tersebut adalah hasil dari keseimbangan alam dalam diri individu dan praktek kewajiban sosial dan keagamaan yang didasarkan pada tiga aspek psikoterapi seperti dicatat oleh Shah (1996):
(A)   Analisis Nafs
(B)   Proses reformatif
(C)   Sosio-religius reintegrasi individu

Psikoterapi dari sudut pandang Islam berkisar pada tiga aspek:
Wahyu. Aplikasi dan implikasi dari surat an-Nas, al- Falaq, adalah beberapa contohdalam psikoterapi Islam yang bersumber pada wahyu. Untuk tujuan spiritual dan terapi, Islam menetapkan bebeapa modalitas dalam menjalankan semua urusan. Misalnya, untuk  mencegah masalah yang timbul dari jin diwajibkan untuk membaca penangkal psikotik sebelum masuk ke toilet.
Prilaku yang tidak diinginkan dapat diubah dengan prilaku yang mulia melalui iman yang menunjukkan bahwa takut pada Allah adalah dasar dari prilaku manusia yang baik dan terapi yang paling efektif. Rasa takut kepada Allah adalah determinan paling penting dari kerangka Islam untuk terapi prilaku. Takut kepada Allah SWT menjadi awal dari kebijaksanaan dan penyucian Nafs manusia.

Kesimpulan

Dalam psikoterapi transpersonal barat ditemukan bahwa ruang lingkupnya terbatas untuk ide- ide lain dan deficit terhadap perhatian agama bagi kelangsungan hidup manusia(khususnya agama Islam). Dengan demikian, kerangka Islam yang baik sangat diperlukan.

Analisis
Setelah mempelajari dan memahami jurnal ini secara keseluruhan, ditemukan beberapa kekurangan pada jurnal ini:
1.       Jurnal ini hanya menggunakan metode studi pustaka terhadap penelitian- penelitian sebelumnya. Dengan hanya menggunakan metode studi pustaka yang digunakan peneliti pada jurnal ini, menurut saya sumbernya kurang lengkap, padahal peneliti bisa menggunakan metode pendukung lainnya seperti wawancara, studi lapangan/ observasi, atau dengan melakukan studi baru menyangkut tema ini.
2.       Karena jurnal ini menggunakan metode studi pustaka, jadi peneliti hanya menjelaskan panjang lebar tentang psikoterapi transpersonal.
3.       Kasus dan fenomena yang disertakan peneliti pada jurnal ini masih sedikit
Saran
1.       Perlu dilakukan lagi penelitian kualitatif serta kuantitatif terhadap tema yang sama.
2.       Jika dilakukan penelitian lagi tentang tema ini, sebaiknya tidak menggunakan studi pustaka saja.

4 komentar:

  1. saya mahasiswa dari Universitas Islam Indonesia
    Artikel yang menarik, bisa buat referensi ini, dwi bahasa lagi hehe ..
    terimakasih ya infonya :)

    BalasHapus
    Balasan
    1. alhamdulillah berguna buat orang lain.
      sama2:)

      Hapus
  2. ada jurnal atau skripsi tentang konversi agama, tapi bukan yang pindah agama ada g ya dsana??? terima kasih
    lg butuh tambahan referensi skripsi

    BalasHapus
    Balasan
    1. saya kurang tau juga mas. Ini kebetulan ada tugas aja, trus saya share di sini. Silahkan datangin perpus fakulas psikologi UIN Jkt, barangkali ada.
      sama2:) semoga cepet kelar skripsinya:)

      Hapus

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